The Einstein Soccer Study

The Einstein Soccer Study examined the impact of soccer ‘heading’ on the brain over the short and long term. Integrating neuroimaging, cognitive testing and genomics, the Einstein Soccer Study aimed to determine the relationship between sub-concussive head injury in adult amateur soccer players, their brain structure, and its relationship to functioning.

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Frequent “Heading” in Soccer Can Lead to Brain Injury and Cognitive Impairment

Carla Garcia
Einstein Soccer Study Participant


YE 2022
Ye, K., Fleysher, R., Lipton, R.B., Zimmerman, M.E., Stewart ,W.F., Sliwinski, M.J., Kim, M., Lipton, M.L., Repetitive soccer heading adversely impacts short-term learning among adult women. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, August 26, 2022.

Levitch, C.F., McConathey, E., Aghvinian, M., Himmelstein, M., Lipton, M. L., Zimmerman, M.E., The Impact of Sleep on the Relationship between Soccer Heading Exposure and Neuropsychological Function in College-Age Soccer Players. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 2020: p. 1-12.

Hunter, L.E., Freudenberg-Hua, Y., Davies, P., Kim, M., Lipton, R.B., Stewart, W. F., Srinvasan, P., Hu, S., Lipton, M.L., Associations of Apolipoprotein E ε4 Genotype and Ball Heading With Verbal Memory in Amateur Soccer Players. JAMA Neurol, 2020.

Lipton, M.L., Rethinking Youth Sports. Cerebrum, 2019. 2019.

Hunter, L.E., C.A. Branch, and M.L. Lipton, The neurobiological effects of repetitive head impacts in collision sports. Neurobiol Dis, 2019. 123: p. 122-126.

SURI 2018
Suri, A.K. and M.L. Lipton, Neuroimaging of brain trauma in sports. Handb Clin Neurol, 2018. 158: p. 205-216.

RUBIN 2018
Rubin, T.G., Catenaccio, E., Fleysher, R., Hunter, L. E., Lubin, N., Stewart, W.F., Kim, M., Lipton, R.B., Lipton, M. L., MRI-defined White Matter Microstructural Alteration Associated with Soccer Heading Is More Extensive in Women than Men. Radiology, 2018. 289(2): p. 478-486.

Levitch, C.F., Ifrah, C., Kim, M., Stewart, W. F., Lipton, R. B., Zimmerman, M. E., Lipton, M. L., Personality and Risk Taking in Sports: A Focus on Unintentional and Intentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players. Clin J Sport Med, 2018.

Hunter, L.E., Ifrah, C., Zimmerman, M. E., Kim, M., Lipton, R. B., Stewart, W.F., Lipton, M.L., Heading and unintentional head impacts have opposing associations with Patient Reported Outcomes in amateur soccer players. Res Sports Med, 2018. 26(4): p. 390-400.

Goldman-Yassen, A.E., Chen, K. X., Edasery, D., Hsu, K., Ye, K., Lipton, M. L., Near-Term Decrease in Brain Volume following Mild Traumatic Injury Is Detectible in the Context of Preinjury Volumetric Stability: Neurobiologic Insights from Analysis of Historical Imaging Examinations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2018. 39(10): p. 1821-1826.

Broglio, S.P., Kontos, A. P., Levin, H., Schneider, K., Wilde, E. A., Cantu, R. C., Feddermann-Demont, N., Fuller, G. W., Gagnon, I., Gioia, G. A., Giza, C., Griesbach, G. S., Leddy, J. J., Lipton, M. L., Mayer, A. R., McAllister, T. W., McCrea, M., McKenzie, L. B., Putukian, M., Signoretti, S., Suskauer, S. J., Tamburro, R., Turner, M., Yeates, K. O., Zemek, R., Ala’i, S., Esterlitz, J. Gay, K., Bellgowan, P. S. F., Joseph, K., National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Department of Defense Sport-Related Concussion Common Data Elements Version 1.0 Recommendations. J Neurotrauma, 2018. 35(23): p. 2776-2783.

Stewart WF, Kim N, Ifrah C, Sliwinski M, Zimmerman ME, Kim M, Lipton RB, Lipton ML, Heading Frequency Is More Strongly Related to Cognitive Performance Than Unintentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players, Frontiers in Neurology, 2018, 9:240, doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00240.

Levitch CF, Zimmerman ME, Lubin N, Kim N, Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Kim M, Lipton ML, Recent and Long-Term Soccer Heading Exposure Is Differentially Associated With Neuropsychological Function in Amateur Players, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Association 2017 23:1-9

Lipton ML, Ifrah C, Stewart WF, Fleysher R, Sliwinski MJ, Kim M, Lipton RB, Validation of HeadCount-2w for estimation of two-week heading: Comparison to daily reporting in adult amateur player, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2017, in press.

Catenaccio E, Mu W, Kaplan A, Fleysher R, Kim N, Bachrach T, Zughaft Sears M, Jaspan O, Caccese J, Kim M, Wagshul M, Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Lipton ML. Characterization of Neck Strength in Healthy Young Adults. PM&R 2017, pii:S1934-1482(17)30132-6.

Stewart WF, Kim N, Ifrah CS, Lipton RB, Bachrach TA, Zimmerman ME, Kim M, Lipton ML. Symptoms from repeated intentional and unintentional head impact in soccer players. Neurology 2017, 88(9):901-908.

Catenaccio ER, Caccese J, Wakschlag N, Fleysher R, Kim N, Kim M, Buckley TA, Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Kaminski T, Lipton ML, Validation and calibration of HeadCount, a self-report measure for quantifying heading exposure in soccer players, Research in Sports Medicine, 2016 24(4):416-425.

Lipton ML, Kim N, Zimmerman ME, Kim M, Stewart WF, Branch CA, Lipton RB, Soccer Heading is Associated with White Matter Microstructural and Cognitive Abnormalities, Radiology 2013, 268(3):850-7

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